Definitions of Positive and Negative
Unique to this website are the terms P or Positive and N or Negative which are specifically used to describe the Image of the Man of the Shroud captured by black and white photographic film.
It is from black and white film that we can appreciate the positive view of the Man of the Shroud who was hidden in the negative image on the cloth of the Man of the Shroud until the first photograph of the Shroud was taken by Secondo Pia in 1898.
In 1898 cameras were large as were the negative plates that captured the negative photo of the object that was being photographed. It was in the darkroom that the negative plate was developed and then the total photographic image on the negative plate was turned back into a positive image by passing light through the negative plate onto photographic paper, thus creating a positive image of the photographed object.
After photographing the Shroud cloth with its image and blood marks, Secondo Pia went back to his darkroom to develop his negative plate. He saw the negative photo of the blood marks, patches, etc. of the shroud but he was surprised that he did not see the negative image of a man that he expected to see on his negative plate. Instead he saw the positive image of a man. He wondered how this could be and then realized that the image of the Man of the Shroud that he just photographed was the negative image of a man. How could a negative image of a man get onto an ancient cloth when photography was only invented in the 19th century? Because of this discovery scientists around the world became interested in studying the Shroud.
In 1978 when Vernon took a black and white photograph of the Shroud, he used photographic film which produces a photographic negative when taking the picture. This negative photo was later developed in the darkroom. But in the case of the Shroud, it is the negative photo that reveals the positive image of a man, and it is the positive photo (the original shroud cloth as you see it) that shows the negative image of a man.
Definitions of black and white films on this website:
In summary, on this website, the black and white film of the Shroud cloth as you see it (positive photo) has the negative image of a man and the film is defined as N or NEGATIVE: Negative Image of a Man as seen in the positive photo. The negative photo of the Shroud cloth has the positive image of a man and the film is defined as P or POSITIVE: Positive Image of a Man as seen in the negative photo.
On the Shroud as you see it (positive photo) the blood marks are seen as positive and on the negative film the blood marks are seen as negative. In contrast to the unique image, these blood marks have the classic results of what is expected when blood is photographed, and the same is true of the patches, burn marks, etc. seen on the cloth.
The discussions of positive and negative black and white photos are mentioned throughout this website. These photo discussions should not be confused with the unique way that is used on this website in defining a film by the Positive or Negative Image of the Man of the Shroud. See the above summary.
Definitions of Abbreviated Terms
Definitions of abbreviations (letters) used to describe and identify the individual photos.
UV Ultraviolet Fluorescent
V Visible Light
WL White Light
B/W Black & White
D Dorsal (Back)
F Frontal (Front)
Tu Torso upper
Tl Torso lower
Left and Right
N or NEGATIVE and P or POSITIVE (Refer to the image of the Man of the Shroud. See Definitions of Positive and Negative above.)
N or NEGATIVE: Negative Image of a Man as seen in the positive photo (Naked eye view of Shroud Image: image of the man is negative)
P or POSITIVE: Positive Image of a Man as seen in the negative photo (Reverse of Naked eye view of Shroud Image: image of the man is positive)
Bi Body image
Di Dorsal image
Fi Frontal image
Fui Full image
Cc Clear cloth
Ed Enhanced edge